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pipe nipples


There are 2 types of threads which are use for Pipe threading or in screw Pipe Fittings, Fasteners and hydraulic systems.

  1. NPT threads
  2. BSP threads.

NPT threads:

NPT thread is also known as National Pipe threads. It’s an American Pipe thread standard for the Pipe. Its s also known as MNPT, NPT, NPT, external thread for Male Pipe Fittings, external male threads and also FPT. NPT (F) is used for Female Internal thread. Usually top protect the thread from getting leak sealant is use but with PCFSCT threads you don’t even need to use the sealant, as it perfectly get connected with female fitting and there is no chance for Pipe to get the leak. It doesn’t depend on the die of the Pipe but the thread size. All the threads have the same pitch, angled as per 60 degrees, and shape is valleys and the flat peak.


Trade Size Threads per inch Pitch Major Diameter (O.D)
Inch mm Inch mm
1/8 27 0.03704 0.94082 0.405 10.29
1/4 18 0.05556 1.41122 0.540 13.72
3/8 18 0.05556 1.41122 0.675 17.15
1/2 14 0.07143 1.81432 0.840 21.34
3/4 14 0.07143 1.81432 1.050 26.67
1 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 1.315 33.40
1 ¼ 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 1.660 42.16
1 ½ 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 1.900 48.26
2 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 2.375 60.33
2 ½ 8 0.12500 3.17500 2.875 73.03
3 8 0.12500 3.17500 3.500 88.90
4 8 0.12500 3.17500 4.500 114.30


BSP threads

BSP threads are also known as British Standard Pipe Threads. BSP thread is commonly used in Australia and the countries which were affiliated with British in past. BSP thread is not base on the die of the pipe, but it is base on trade size. This can create some confusion sometimes.

Parallel BSP is known as BSPP and Tapered BSP is known is BSPT.

In BSP also all threads have the same pitch, 55-degree angle, its shape in round peaks and valley.

Trade Size Threads per inch Pitch Major Diameter Minor Diameter Gage Length
Inch mm Inch mm Inch Mm Inch mm
1/8 28 0.0357 0.907 0.3830 9.728 0.3372 8.565 0.1563 3.97
1/4 19 0.0526 1.337 0.5180 13.157 0.4506 11.445 0.2367 6.012
3/8 19 0.0526 1.337 0.6560 16.662 0.5886 14.95 0.25 6.35
1/2 14 0.0714 1.814 0.8250 20.955 0.7336 18.633 0.3214 8.164
3/4 14 0.0714 1.814 1.0410 26.441 0.9496 24.12 0.3750 9.525
1 11 0.0909 2.309 1.3090 33.249 1.1926 30.292 0.4091 10.391
1 ¼ 11 0.0909 2.309 1.65 41.91 1.5336 38.953 0.5 12.7
1 ½ 11 0.0909 2.309 1.8820 47.803 1.7656 44.846 0.5 12.7
2 11 0.0909 2.309 2.347 59.614 2.2306 56.657 0.6250 15.875
2 ½ 11 0.0909 2.309 2.96 75.184 2.8436 72.227 0.6875 17.463
3 11 0.0909 2.309 3.46 87.884 3.3436 84.927 0.8125 20.638
4 11 0.0909 2.309 4.45 113.03 4.3336 110.073



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How To Identify Correct Thread Size For Pipe?

National Pipe Threads (NPT)

The physical dimensions of a Pipe are referred by the size of die, but standards of plumbing industry vary from the actual size and proportion of the Pipe. You should be conscious in the measuring of the pipe because mostly it can misguide you to choose the wrong material pipe. The “pipe thread size” as shown in column 3 is based on the inside of the pipe and measure on the value in the table. You must measure the outside diameter of each pipe for the actual identification of the size of the pipe. For example, there is an outside diameter of 3/4″ NPT pipe thread is 1.050 inches. Threads per inch (TPI) are defined for each thread size. There are 14 threads per inch in the 3/4″ NPT pipe thread. For definite classification of the thread, there is need of both the TPI (threads per inch) and OD (outside diameter) of the thread because several sizes have the same TPI.

Male threads: The significant portion of the thread should be measured from the outside diameter at “A”; in column 1 or 2 of chart find figure nearest this dimension. Your nominal pipe thread size will be the dimension in column 3

Female Threads: Top diameter of thread at “B” should be measured; In column 1 or 2 of chart find figure nearest this dimension. Your nominal pipe thread size will be the dimension in column 3

The American National Standard for pipe has specified all pipe thread types used in plumbing as accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
NPT pipe thread is tapered threads. For general purposes usage, these are the most common threads. NPT threads are designed at an angle of 60-degree thread angle in the NPT threads, and they are used for joining and sealing the pipe. The tapered thread is 3/4″ over one foot of length. At the end of the pipe tapered threads are deeper and the further they are from the end of the pipe and are increasingly shallower.

The pipe is only allowed by the taper on the pipe to screw inside the fitting until it is forced to stop because of the taper. The ANSI standard specifies the distance the pipe can be screwed into the fitting. The threads may have slight spaces between the pipe and fitting after tightening with a wrench due to which a leak can be caused so for ensured about the gaps being all filled a pipe sealant must be used. Threads are also tapered by the Dry-seal thread (NPTF). When the usage is such that the pipe sealing compounds may malfunction due to higher heat or pressure than standard NPT threads can withstand at that point, NPTF threads are used.

When tightened with a wrench the threads are designed to mechanically seal, that allows crushing the threads. The joining of pipe and fitting without sealants is allowed by it. If sealants such as PTFE tape or suitable pipe joint compounds are used, then the NPT and NPTF threads can be interchanged. None of the other thread standards are fully interchangeable (GHT, NST, BSPT, NPSI, etc.). “FPT” or “FIP” can be the designation for Female NPT threads and “MPT” or “MIP” can be the designation for male NPT threads. There are straight threads in National Standard Free-Fitting Straight Mechanical Pipe Threads (NPSM) which are only used for joining.

There is need of a washer or gasket to seal this type of threaded connection. The usage of these three thread types is also very common in the plumbing industry. There are coarse threads in the Garden Hose Thread (GHT) and the Fire Hose Thread (NST). A gasket or washer is used to make t and is used mainly for attaching (joining) hoses to valves quickly, without the usage of a wrench. There is a 55-degree thread angle in the British Standard Taper Pipe Thread (BSPT) (NPT are 60 degrees), and it has a standard thread for joining steel pipes which are its international usage.

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The work of a plumber is to repair, re-install, and maintain the pipes and pipelines of drainage systems that lead to your appliances and other fixtures. Plumbers are appointed for both residential and commercial purposes some on the basis of needs and some on contract basis. The role of plumber is to fix drainage pipes and performing satisfactory pipe fixtures. A plumber should be skill full and highly trained to delivery satisfactory service for their customers and to fix their issues completely.


Satisfactory manual dexterity is one of the most essential physical requirements a plumber should have. As a plumber needs to carry heavy holds he must have the capability to hold heavy objects firmly and steadily. Holding objects may include tools and piece of pipe. A skilled plumber should know how to smartly manipulate his fingers and arms and how to synchronize his both arms. He should a clear vision and a good eye sight so that he could easily detect problems and can analyze the condition perfectly.


A plumber should know some of the basic mathematical functions as he always needs to take calculations and measurements. It is preferred that a plumber should be aware of basic geometrical and algebraic knowledge to make its calculation even precise. Requirement gathering is another very important factor that a plumber should be good at. Communicating with people and understanding their issue correctly is one of the most important ability a plumber should posses and he should know how to deal and interact with the customer.


A plumber should be good at analyzing and encountering the exact problem. After detection he should make precise calculation and reasoning that how he will solve the issues. What principles he will be going to adopt and how much time he will be going consume. There are various factors on which a plumbers reasoning should depend.


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Different grades of steel have been manufactured since the invention of steel. The grade variations of steel support its usage for different applications. The variation in grades of steel is achieved by varying the amount of carbon involved in the manufacturing process. According to industrial standards the proportion of carbon for optimum results is about 0.2% to 2.1%. Chromium, tungsten and manganese base iron can also be added in order to enhance base properties of steel. Varying proportion of steel plays a key role in the ductility of steel and increasing tensile strength that contributes to its high durability. The carbon inclusion can control thermal and electrical influences of the steel efficiently. However the materials are responsible to maintain uniformity within the crystalline structure of the basic iron atom.

Steel composed of these recipes highly depends on carbon in the formation of long lasting alloys. However the composition of tungsten, manganese and cobalt are also present with some unspecified proportions. The carbon composition makes steel hard and strong making it withstand under harsh thermal conditions successfully. However steel made up of carbon possess low ductility and anti-corrosive properties. Corrosion causes rusting to the steel due to oxidation those results in weakening of steel. Bridges are the example to portrait corrosion as bridges get corrode very early even after few years of construction. Stainless steel is a popular form of steel which never corrodes due to chromium plating. The best proportion of chromium plating is 10.5% to 11.0% of chromium

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